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High visibility punishment and deterrent: Impalement in Assyrian warfare and legal practice

Pages 103 - 128



1 Albenda, P. 1986 The Palace of Sargon King of Assyria, Paris.

2 Barnett, R.D. / Falkner, M. 1962 The Sculptures of Aššur-nasir-apli II (883–859 B.C.), Tiglath-pileser III (745–727 B.C.), Esarhaddon (681–669 B.C.) from the Central and South-West Palaces at Nimrud, London.

3 Botta, P.-É / Flandin, E. 1849 Monument de Ninive, vol. 1, Paris.

4 Borger, R. 1996 Beiträge zum Inschriftenwerk Assurbanipals, Wiesbaden.

5 Cole, S.W. 1997 The destruction of orchards in Assyrian warfare, in: S. Parpola and R. Whiting (eds.), Assyria 1995, Helsinki, 29–40.

6 Cole, S.W. / Machinist, P. 1998 Letters from Priests to the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal, Helsi!nki.

7 Crouch, C.L. 2009 War and Ethics in the Ancient Near East: Military Violence in Light of Cosmology and History, Berlin.

8 Fuchs, A. 1994 Die Inschriften Sargons II. aus Khorsabad, Göttingen.

9 Gottlieb, Y. 2004 The arrowheads and selected aspects of the siege battle, in: D. Ussishkin (ed.), The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish (1973–1994), vol. IV, Tel Aviv, 1907–1969.

10 Grayson, A.K. 1991 Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium BC, I (1114–859 BC), Toronto.

11 Grayson, A.K. 1996 Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium BC, II (858–745 BC), Toronto.

12 Grayson, A.K., and Novotny, J. 2012 The Royal Inscriptions of Sennacherib, King of Assyria (704–681 BC), Part 1, Winona Lake.

13 Grayson, A.K., and Novotny, J. 2014 The Royal Inscriptions of Sennacherib, King of Assyria (704–681 BC), Part 2, Winona Lake.

14 King, L.W. 1915 Bronze Reliefs from the Gates of Shalmaneser King of Assyria B.C. 860–825, London.

15 Kwasman T., / Parpola, S. 1991 Legal Transactions of the Royal Court of Nineveh, Part I: Tiglath-Pileser III through Esarhaddon, Helsinki.

16 Leichty, E. 2011 The Royal Inscriptions of Esarhaddon, King of Assyria (680–669 BC), Winona Lake.

17 Löhnert, A. 2007 The installation of priests according to Neo-Assyrian documents, State Archives of Assyria Bulletin 16, 273–286.

18 Marriott, J. / Radner, K. 2015 Sustaining the Assyrian army among friends and enemies in 714 BCE, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 67, 127–143.

19 Parpola, S., 1987 The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part I: Letters from Assyria and the West, Helsinki.

20 Parpola, S., 1993 Letters from Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars, Helsinki.

21 Pinches, Th. / Birch, W. 1882–1902 The Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates of Balawat, London.

22 Radner, K. 2012 Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Musasir, Kumme, Ukku and šubria – the Buffer States between Assyria and Urartu, in: S. Kroll et al. (eds.), Biainili-Urartu, Leuven 243–264.

23 Radner, K. 2013 Assyria and the Medes, in: D.T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, Oxford – New York, 442–456.

24 Radner, K. 2014 An imperial communication network: the state correspondence of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, in: K. Radner (ed.), State Correspondences of the Ancient World from the New Kingdom to the Roman Empire, Oxford – New York, 64–93.

25 Reynolds, F.S. 2003 The Babylonian Correspondence of Esarhaddon and Letters to Assurbanipal and Sinšarru-iškun from Northern and Central Babylonia, Helsinki.

26 Sass, B. / Ussishkin, D. 2004 Spears, armour scales and sling stones, in: D. Ussishkin (ed.), The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish (1973–1994), vol. IV, Tel Aviv, 1970–1982.

27 Schachner, A. 2007 Bilder eines Weltreichs: Kunst- und kulturgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zu den Verzierungen eines Tores aus Balawat (Imgur-Enlil) aus der Zeit von Salmanassar III. König von Assyrien, Turnhout.

28 Schachner, A. 2009 (ed.), Assyriens Könige an einer der Quellen des Tigris: archäologische Forschungen im Höhlensystem von Bcrkleyn und am sogenannten Tigris-Tunnel, Tübingen.

29 Tadmor, H. / Yamada, Sh. 2011 The Royal Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III (744–727 BC) and Shalmaneser V (726–722 BC), Kings of Assyria, Winona Lake.

30 Ussishkin, D. 1982 The Conquest of Lachish by Sennacherib, Tel Aviv.

31 Ussishkin, D. 2003 Symbols of conquest in Sennacherib's reliefs of Lachish: impaled prisoners and booty, in: T.F. Potts et al. (eds.), Culture Through Objects: Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honour of P.R.S. Moorey, Oxford, 207–217.

32 Ussishkin, D. 2004 Area R and the Assyrian siege, in: D. Ussishkin (ed.), The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish (1973–1994), vol. II, Tel Aviv, 695–767.

33 Yamada, Sh. 2000 The Construction of the Assyrian Empire: A Historical Study of the Inscriptions of Shalmaneser III (859–824 B.C.) Relating to his Campaigns in the West, Leiden.


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